Annotated Bibliography
Baetens Beardsmore, H. (2009). Chapter 9: Language Promotion by European Supra-national Institutions. In O. García (Author), Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective (pp. 197-217). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Chapter 9 in the García textbook reviews European language policy in general. The Council of Europe and The European Commission are covered as well as two major language policies: The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the Action Plan for Language Learning. Some discussion of assessment and the Common European Framework Reference (CEFR) are discussed and Bilingual Education descriptors CLIL and EMILE are addressed. The focus is toward more general language policy of the EU rather than a migrant focus.
Beacco, J.-C., Byram, M., Cavalli, M., Coste, D., Cuenat, M. E., Goullier, F., & Panthier, J. (2016). Guide for the development and implementation of curricula for plurilingual and intercultural education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
In order to have a curriculum that individual member states and regions can follow and be sure to implement policies that are in accordance with the suggestions of the Council of Europe, they have devised this guide to help set up plurilingual and intercultural education. Based on the research of two major studies in curriculum design and implementation, the authors give detailed understanding on how and when to implement various steps in a curriculum based on the Council's language education goals.
Bian, C. (2017). The potential of transnational language policy to promote social inclusion of migrants: An analysis and evaluation of the European Union’s INCLUDE project. International Review of Education, 63(4), 475-494.
There has been a distinct lack of common action at the European level to address the need for language learning to aid in migrants' social inclusion. While acknowledging the challenging questions of policy making Bian pushes nations to find solutions. The article analyses the relationship between social inclusion and language learning in migrant communities. Data was derived from the European social inclusion project, named INCLUDE, which ran from 2013 until 2016, and reviews various national language policies and their effect on the social inclusion of migrant communities.
Blattés, M. (2018). Policy development for English-medium instruction in French universities. European Journal of Language Policy, 10(1), 13-37.
Blattés documents the process through which a given law or amendment pertaining to language policy is discussed among lawmakers and how these discussions and debates impact the policy that is approved and enacted. In addition, one may see the extent to which language policy is adapted and grows out of the context of one nation with a prevailing Discourse.
Bruzos, A., Erdocia, I., & Khan, K. (2017). The path to naturalization in Spain: Old ideologies, new language testing regimes and the problem of test use. Language Policy, 17(4), 419-441. doi:10.1007/s10993-017-9452-4.
The article focuses on Spain’s changing national language policy regarding naturalization requirements for immigrants, the ideologies behind this change, and the issues embedded in the use of tests for these purposes. Results of the Diplomas de Español como Lengua Extranjera (DELE) are related to the Common European Framework Reference (CEFR) and how it relates to immigration policy. Concepts of citizenship, linguistic diversity and language standardization are explored in depth while notions of nationalism and economic immigrants are also addressed.
Buchardt, M. (2018). The “Culture" of Migrant Pupils: A Nation- and Welfare-State Historical Perspective on the European Refugee Crisis. European Education, 50, 58-73.
This article looks at the similarities between the currently termed ‘refugee crisis’ in Europe and a similar episode that occurred in the 1970s within Denmark. Buchardt examines the impact, historical and current of refugees on the Nordic welfare-state. She also examines and cautions against the utilization of ‘culture’ as a blanket term to explain challenges or perceived risks or a lack of acculturation in immigrant and migrant groups.
Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Byram explicates that communicative competence as defined by Canale & Swain (1980) is not in itself enough for learners of a foreign language. Byram adds to the construct of communicative competence the aspect of culture. In his Intercultural Communicative Competence model, Byram argues that learners should be able to integrate language and culture to be go-betweens for their own culture and the culture which they are learning. His model introduces what he calls the five “Savoirs”: Savoir comprendre – skills of interpreting; Savoirs – knowledge of how communities functionl; Savoir s’engager-critical cultural awareness; Savoir être – attitude; and Savoir apprendre – skills of discovering and being able to interact.
Byram, M. (2008, November 6). Prof. Dr. Michael Byram. Plurilingual and intercultural competences: Two elements of a single European language policy. Lecture at Kyoto University. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fMoesr2Oz-s.
In this lecture, Dr. Byram addresses two elements of competence in teaching, using, learning, and assessing language and what that means for European language policy.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.
Canale and Swain expand Dell Hymes' (1972) original construct of communicative competence and devise their own model of communicative competence which includes four areas: Grammatical Competence, Sociolinguistic Competence, Strategic Competence and Discourse Competence.
Christiansen, P.V (2006). Language Policy in the European Union: European/English/Elite/Equal/Esperanto Union Language Problems & Language Planning 30(1), 21-44.
This article presents an examination of possible language policy scenarios for the EU to ensure a democratic and integrated EU for both language majority and language minority groups. The author stresses the importance of educational language policies to ensure the democratic and active participation of all citizens within the EU. She looks into the possibilities and drawbacks of a three language model, which would have everyone learning their mother tongue, the lingua franca of the nation they live in, and one extra language. The article argues, however that the policy most likely to be successful would utilize a planned language, like Esperanto as the lingua franca for the entire EU.
Council of Europe. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Retrieved from https://rm.coe.int/1680459f97
First elaborated in 2001, this language neutral framework has been the most influential example of an outcomes- or competency-based approach to language learning, teaching, and assessment. It serves not only as a catalyst for the development of language materials and programs in all European states, but as a unifying frame of reference to enable and facilitate plurilingual competence. Language proficiency is graded along six levels of achievement in three broad categories: basic user(A1, A2); independent user(B2, B2); and proficient user(C1, C2). It is available in 40 languages. See the CEFR site for more info.
Council of Europe. (2018a). Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/lang-migrants.
This is the official Council of Europe’s website and this page provides an overview for the program Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants or LIAM. It lists the main aims of the program and features a useful color fact sheet pdf file which includes a compact summary of policy goals, guidelines, materials and recommendations from the Council of Europe.
Council of Europe. (2018b). The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/european-charter-regional-or-minority-languages/home.
This website is the homepage for the Council of Europe's policies and stance on regional and minority languages. Much of their research as well as voting information on the policy can be found in documents attached to this page.
Council of Europe. (2018c). Platform of resources and references for plurilingual and intercultural education. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/language-policy/platform.
This portion of the Council of Europe's site is dedicated to the stance on plurilingual and intercultural education. The platform of resources recognizes the learners and languages present in a school, the language(s) of schooling, regional, minority, and migration languages, and foreign languages, modern and classical. It also casts language as a subject and as a vehicle used in other subject education.
Council of Europe. (2018d). Language Education Policy. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/language-policy/language-policies.
This is the main website for the Language Education Policy as set forth by the Council of Europe.
Cullen, J. (2017). Migrants and the Language of Instruction: Is the EU Policy Deficit Driving New Innovations in Social Inclusion? International Review of Education, 63(4), 453-474.
This article examines the impact of the global financial crisis, neoliberalism and the language education support offered to immigrant groups. Cullen points out the shift of responsibility from the EU and national levels to regional and local levels, and all the way down the ladder to the local populace themselves. He argues that this situation has created new possibilities for social innovation to allow for the integration of immigrants into the dominant culture of the new host nation.
DeJong, E.J. (2013). Policy discourses and U.S. language in education policies. Peabody Journal of Education, 88(1), 98-111.
DeJong discusses pluralist and assimilationist views of language learning and bilingual education. While these topics are presented from the view of American language education policies, the underlying discourses may be applicable to and should be considered for all bilingual education. These concepts include pluralism, language as a resource, assimilation, language diversity, autonomy and hegemonic monolingualism.
Devlin, K. (2015, July 13). Learning a foreign language a ‘must’ in Europe, not so in America. PEW Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/07/13/learning-a-foreign-language-a-must-in-europe-not-so-in-america/.
This article highlights the difference between multilingualism in Europe with that of the United States, and with two simple graphs, demonstrates the implementation of policies country by country that lead to greater multilingualism
Duarte, J. (2011). Migrants’ educational success through innovation: The case of the Hamburg bilingual schools. International Review of Education, 57, 631-649.
This article looks at the specific cases of bilingual schools started for migrants in the city of Hamburg, Germany. These schools were started in response to the achievement gap which has grown between children from a migrant backgrounds and monolingual peers due to the political climate in Germany and specifically the attitudes towards the immigrants entering the country. This article reports on the models and specific school outcomes of the students.
Dubois-Shaik, F. (2014). Analysing ‘Migrant’ Membership Frames through Education Policy Discourse: An Example of Restrictive ‘Integration’ Policy within Europe. European Educational Research Journal, 13(6), 715-730. doi:10.2304/eerj.2014.13.6.715.
The article explores the underlying discourses involved in the “integration” of migrants through education policy, including the problematization of migration itself using critical discourse analysis. Discusses topics such as structural and political integration, democracy, neoliberalism, multiculturalism, pluralism, segregation, negotiated notions of membership and non-membership.
Eide, A. (1999). Oslo Recommendations Regarding the Linguistic Rights of National Minorities and Explanatory Note. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 6(3), 359-387. doi:10.1163/15718119920907703.
Although this is an older resources it provides a good foundation for the background and history regarding policies given to national minorities and offers a comprehensive description of the ways in which different language policies affect and should affect minorities in Europe in regards to different aspects of their lives including in the media as well as economic, juridical, communal, institutional and administrative spaces.
Ennser-Kananen, J., & Pettitt, N. (2017). “I want to speak like the other people”: Second language learning as a virtuous spiral for migrant women? International Review of Education, 63(4), 583-604. doi:10.1007/s11159-017-9653-2.
The authors examine and compare the issues facing migrant women in Europe, specifically Austria, and the United States. Prior research on the inclusion of migrant women is presented in addition to the authors’ own work. Additionally Ennser-Kananen & Pettitt analyze the underlying challenges facing migrant women and why L2 proficiency does not guarantee socioeconomic success or social inclusion in the host country.
EUR-Lex Access to European Union law. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html.
Serves as a database for European Union Law. Key terms are searchable and the website provides translations in the languages of the European Union. This website is connected to the website for the European Union itself.
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice. (2017). Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe – 2017 Edition. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
In an attempt to describe the main policies on language diversity in Europe, this study deals with data collected in 2017 and currently being used to adjust suggestions for policy through the European Union. The data is divided into over 60 indicators in five main areas: Context of Language Education, Organisation, Participation, Teachers and Teaching and processes. It is the main data used in the Staff Working paper Proposal for a Council Recommendation on a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages.
European Commission. (2003). Action plan on language learning and linguistic diversity. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=LEGISSUM:c11068&from=ENG.
The Action plan on language learning and diversity was a suggested set of areas that the European Commission communicated to member states about areas of needed improvement as well as areas of deficiencies in Language Education Policy. The HTML document focuses on life-long learning, improving language teaching and creating a language friendly environment. The Action plan indicates that the suggestions indicated will be implemented between 2004-2006.
European Commission. (2018a). Education and migrants. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/european-policy-cooperation/education-and-migrants_en.
European Commission’s webpage through the EU discussing its policy regarding migrants and education and provides basic descriptions and links to the programs Erasmus+ and SIRIUS network. Video containing interviews with educators in Sweden is presented on this page.
European Commission. (2018b). Proposal for a Council Recommendation on a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages. Brussels. European Union.
Current Staff Working paper within the European Commission which highlights issues and advancements based on the 2017 Key Data from EACEA/Eurydice. The major indications and suggestions are a focus on replacing English as the number one choice for students studying a foreign language as well as the various policies across member states which vary from no foreign language education requirements to states that require more than one language for learners under 18.
European Parliament. (2017, September). Language policy. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/142/language-policy.
This webpage provides the official fact sheet on language policy for the European Union and includes the legal basis, objectives, achievements and the role of the European Parliament. There are many links provided to legislation and useful references regarding migrant language policy.
García, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century
a global perspective. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. : With a focus on languaging, translanguaging and various factors which need to be taken into consideration about bilingual education, Garcia attempts to cover the major topics included in the study of bilingualism and bilingual education. Various topics include: bilingual education for all, bilingualism and education, bilingual education policy and bilingual education practice.
Gulobeva, M. (2012). Mapping European Stakeholders on Migrant Education. Retrieved from http://www.eunec.eu/sites/www.eunec.eu/files/attachment/files/mapping20european20stakeholders20on20migrant20education.pdf.
This report, funded in concert between the EU, Migration Policy Group, Network of Education Policy Centers and Sirius, details the different groups pushing for EU educational policy to explicitly include migrants in educational policy. She details each groups affiliations, aims and goals.
Ham, S., Yang, K., & Cha, Y. (2017). Immigrant integration policy for future generations? A cross-national multilevel analysis of immigrant-background adolescents’ sense of belonging at school. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 60, 40-50. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.06.001.
The article examines data from 52,000+ students across 25 countries to determine the potential effectiveness of education, and educational policies, in particular to foster a closing of the immigrant/native achievement gap and sense of social belonging in the school community. The authors determine that public policy is likely to be effective as an intervention to foster higher levels of social inclusion for students of immigrant backgrounds in educational settings.
Harris, R., Leung, C., Rampton, B. (2001) Globalization, Diaspora and Language Education in England. Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies. London, UK: King’s College London.
This article focuses on issues of globalization and migrants particularly in the UK, cites information from The Swann Report and Hall, and discusses globalization and notions of identity. Case studies from migrants to the UK learning English are provided and their language learning and identity performance and maintenance are discussed as well as their linguistic needs.
Holborow M. (2006). Ideology and Language: Interconnections between Neo-liberalism and English. In J. Edge (Ed.) (Re-)Locating TESOL in an Age of Empire. Language and Globalization. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
This chapter provides good background information regarding the interconnections between neo-liberalism and language policy. Holborow explores concepts of post-colonialism, capitalism, globalism, imperialism and neo-liberalism in English teaching and poses the question of whether English teachers play the role of second-wave imperial storm troopers and English as a weapon. Cites Phillipson (1992, 2003) in discussions of English-only discourses in Europe.
Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In J.B. Pride and J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: Selected readings (pp. 269-293). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Dell Hymes challenged Chomsky’s (1965) competence/performance distinction, indicating that grammatical competence cannot exist alone, that grammatical competence must be taken in a context whereby the speaker/learner has the ability to use it in a variety of communicative situations. Hymes' view on competence is known as communicative competence.
Kelly, M. (2015). Recent European Union initiatives in support for languages. European Journal of Language Policy, 7(1), 85-112. doi:10.3828/ejlp.2015.6.
This article discusses the Council of Europe’s Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants (LIAM) project and explores the effect of language on migrant integration through the use of three surveys from the Language Policy Unit in 2008, 2010 and 2013. Results of these surveys were used as a basis for the Council of Europe’s Parliamentary Assembly and informed discussions regarding migrant language policy.
Klenk, H. (2017). An Alternative Understanding of Education and Empowerment: Local-Level Perspectives of Refugee Social Integration in the United Kingdom. European Education, 49(2-3), 166-183. doi:10.1080/10564934.2017.1341290.
Klenk examines the role of education in the social integration of Migrant Women into the UK. The approach examined in this article has been developed by integrating the feminist theory of empowerment and social practice theories of literacy and language use.
Lenz, P., & Berthele, R. (2010). Assessment in plurilingual and intercultural education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
As one of the major studies which contribute to the Guide for the development and implementation of curricula for plurilingual and intercultural education, Lenz and Berthele focus on the overarching goals of assessment in the Council of Europe's suggested curriculum. In addition to the various objects of assessment considered in a plurilingual and intercultural assessment, the authors are concerned with assessments that can account for competency in languages. They point out that special consideration must be made because competences, awareness and attitudes (three areas of focus) cannot be observed directly.
Migrant Integration Policy Index. (n.d.). Education | MIPEX 2015. Retrieved from http://www.mipex.eu/education.
The Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) is a tool which uses 167 indicators to measures policies meant to integrate migrants in all members of the European Union as well as other countries. These indicators are meant to give an overview of the ways in which migrants participate in the societies of their host countries and the opportunities they have. Countries receive a score and filters are available in order to view particular countries or only the EU. MIPEX is led by the organizations Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), and the Migration Policy Group (MPG).
Mohdin, A. (2018, May 5). Even after Brexit, English will remain the language that holds the EU together. Quartz. Retrieved from https://qz.com/1270508/even-after-brexit-english-will-remain-the-language-that-holds-the-eu-together/.
This article offers predictions of how English will fare following the United Kingdom's referendum to leave the EU. Mohdin reports that the proposed EU budget for 2021-2027 and the current hegemonic status of English as EU's lingua franca indicate that the language is not disappearing in the foreseeable future. Euro-English, however, may replace the Queen's version.
OECD. (2018). International Migration Outlook 2018. International Migration Outlook. Paris: OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/migr_outlook-2018-en.
Dated from June 2018, this is the most current source regarding information of migration developments in Europe. This source is also comprehensive and also covers labor market outcomes, breaks down developments in migration and its policies by EU country and provides a significant amount of statistical data.
Rodin, L., Rodin, A., & Brunke, S. (2017). Language training and well-being for qualified migrants in Sweden. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 13(2), 220-233. doi:10.1108/ijmhsc-11-2014-0043.
This is an examination of qualified migrants integration and well-being at the national level of language policy in Sweden. The study samples data from interviews and essays of migrant language students in a Swedish language program focused on preparing adult students for employment. The results include a number of socio-economic as well as social-psychological reasons relating to migrant well-being as to why successful social inclusion does not occur.
Saarinen, T. & Rontu, H. (2018). University language policies: How does Finnish constitutional bilingualism meet the needs for internationalisation in English? European Journal of Language Policy, 10(1), 97-118.
As internationalisation becomes more influential on policies at universities in Western Europe, Saarinen and Rontu explore the issue of internationalisation and the use of English as a medium of instruction. To analyse the importance of the policies integrated at the university level, two Finnish universities and their policies on their language of instruction are looked at and analysed.
Somers, T. (2017). Content and Language Integrated Learning and the inclusion of immigrant minority language students: A research review. International Review of Education, 63, 495-520.
This article focuses on one form of bilingual education, namely, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and the suitability of this approach for immigrant students. After reviewing research on reasons for selecting CLIL education, language proficiency and academic achievement in these programs and the relationship between first language typology and second or third language proficiency, as well as the CLIL pedagogy, the article argues that CLIL programs allow for greater support of immigrant learners, showing that immigrant students in CLIL programs are able to develop equal or superior proficiency in both languages of instruction, compared to their language majority classmates. The article concludes with a discussion of current educational policy shortcomings.
Surmont, J., Struys, E., & Somers, T. (2015). Creating a framework for a large-scale implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning: The first steps. European Journal of Language Policy, 7(1), 29-41.
In order to have a framework at the local level for teachers to use Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), the authors of this article suggest that a general Framework must be developed. The first steps of this macro-level framework is suggested here along with guidelines for the next steps to be taken for a well-organized Content and Language Learning approach at the state level in order to support such a framework at the local level.
UK Government Digital Service. (2017, July 21). Family visas: Apply, extend or switch: Knowledge of English. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/uk-family-visa/knowledge-of-english.
This is the UK government’s information website regarding language requirements for those seeking a visa. The requirements differ depending on the type of visa being sought.
Université du Luxembourg. (2017, December 12). Translanguaging and learning. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fjBPxUm0hAM.
In this video from the Université du Luxembourg, with introduction by Ofelia García, the notion of translanguaging is presented and illustrated with young children. Associate Professor, Dr. Claudine Kirsch discusses the role of translanguaging in education, demonstrating and commenting upon two children doing storytelling in multiple languages.
Van den Akker, J., Fasoglio, D., & Mulder, H. (2010). A curriculum perspective on plurilingual education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Retrieved from https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016805a1e57.
First of the main studies which focuses on curricular design and implementation at a macro level. The information based in this study was used to inform the information in the Guide for the development and implementation of curricula for plurilingual and intercultural education. The document deals mostly with the question of having a dynamic curriculum in the area of language education that promotes both plurilingualism and interculturality.
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